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Automation Testing and Test Automation Framework in DevOps

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Overview of Automation Testing in DevOps

"Software testing" is defined as the variety of methods, tools, and practices used to justify that a software application works at many different levels or not. In Automation testing, we all do some sort of software testing (either manual or ad hoc, e.g., refreshing a webpage after making a change to verify the code you just wrote works). This blog post will try to discuss some concepts about testing in DevOps and give a high-level overview of the different ways that software can be tested and how continuous testing is different from automated testing. Software Testing with automation testing is one of the critical phases of the software development lifecycle. Software testing involves testing various real-life conditions and matching the actual result with the expected result. It ensures that the developed software/application serves the intended purpose. An application can be tested to find bugs. It helps to check the stability of the product. You also learn more about Contract Testing for Microservices.
Contract Testing in the Microservice architecture for splitting the application into small services,  which plays a separate role in system. Source: Contract Testing for Applications

What is Automation Testing and its Types?

Automation testing is a combination of two words that are: Auto and Matos. Auto means self, and Matos means moving. It means "move by itself." Automated systems also achieve significantly superior performance than the performance possible with manual systems, concerning power and speed. In a fundamental sense, automation means — the use of some technology to complete a task.

What are the Types of Automation Testing?

There are main three Types of Automation Testing:

Fixed Automation Testing

The equipment configuration sets this sequence of processing operations. So each operation is usually straightforward, generally using linear or rotational motion to achieve results.

Programmable Automation Testing

In this, a sequence of operations can be changed to accommodate different product configurations. It should do by using a set of coded instructions, which is read and implemented by the system by using another programmer.

Flexible Automation Testing

A system can be quickly and easily re-tasked to change the design for both low and high manufacturing.

Automation Testing using Behavior Driven Testing

[caption id="attachment_1684" align="aligncenter" width="640"] behaviour-driven-testing-xenonstack behavior-driven-testing[/caption] BDT's full form is: "Behavior Driven Testing." It is not common but a counterpart of BDD (Behaviour Driven Development). BDD is a set of behaviors that a user can expect from the system. BDD improves the quality of the software we develop and followed TVD. You can call it is a successor of fertility or an improvement over TVB. TDD is Test-driven development where we write our test cases first as a developer or as an automation team, and then we start writing our hold. Once the implementation or development is complete, the testing team runs the test against our implementation code. All the tests should be passed, so when we write the test, we are writing against our product owner our business analyst's requirements. Still, while we write our tests in TDD, we make a lot of assumptions as a developer or even as an automation engineer. There is no direct link between the test we write and the actual requirements. There is just for all, but BDD directly links the requirements or specifications with the tests we write the way it does. It is, in other words, typically the requirements expressed as stories assess the term we use, and these stories usually sit in Jira or a similar story repository or requirement tool like Jira. Each story comprises some acceptance criteria and the actual requirements and everything the detailed explanation for the story. There is something called acceptance criteria which the product owner puts in. Once she or he is discussed with the team and even the testing team, when we write the test, we will write those tests exactly where against these acceptance criteria, so our test cases will match this acceptance criterion to a particular test. We have a lot of plugins for BDD like JBehave for java; jasmine jas is for javascript behavior development testing and coding. They are straightforward to use. Some plugins can pull this acceptance criterion from zero and then run the corresponding test case once we code. Out of those test cases, if we miss a requirement while we are testing immediately, we know these plugins will complain will right away show you that this particular requirement does not even have a test. If somebody accidentally changes something in the code and if the test fails, we have to use an aggression suit at some point as we keep writing these tests against our implementation.
TDD is a key practice for extreme programming, it suggests that the code is developed exclusively on the basis of the Unit Testing. Source: Test and Behaviour Driven development

We will have a sharp regression suit at some point, so all BDD does links or gives us direct links between other requirements and the actual implementation. We do the test first, even before we start implementation excellent practice to do. Test Automation is not Automation Testing. Testing is not finding the bugs; it is preventing the bugs. Testing is about understanding the product and the problem(s) and finding areas where the product/process can be improved. In automation testing, testers will use the tool to execute the test cases. The will write the test scripts and verify whether the application is working as per requirement or not. Test automation is the automated execution of predefined tests. It gives proof of the completion of testing. Automation testing supports doing performance testing. It ensures the accuracy of the report.

Why Test Automation is Critical to Continuous Testing?

[caption id="attachment_1687" align="aligncenter" width="640"] continuous testing continuous testing[/caption] No! Test automation is not the same as continuous testing. Can you implement continuous testing without automation? That's also a no. Test Automation needs Automated tests and automation testing, whereas Continuous Testing needs Test Automation to deliver on the speed, quality, and efficiency principles. It is essential to know the distinction. Let's attempt to understand this: As businesses move from a traditional testing approach towards DevOps practice, Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery (CI and CD) are keys to achieve the desired speed. In the CD model, software development is an ongoing process, and the deployment-readiness of software, therefore, matters more than ever. Continuous testing allows consistent quality output at every stage of the development. Testing occurs incrementally through the cycle. To achieve continuous testing, however, test organization, efficiency, and speed are all necessary. Organizing all these testing needs in this context is a challenge, and in that case, Test Automation comes. Test automation enables testers to focus their energy and efforts on writing better test cases. It simplifies the process by automating the tracking and managing of all these testing requirements. Automation testing is designed to take the internal structure into account and have a quick feedback loop for developers to control the system design. It, in turn, helps the overall quality of the software. It acknowledged that test automation has to start in the early stage of the development cycle. The speed at which all development and testing occur matters quite a lot. That's because if something in the pipeline breaks down, it holds up everything else and slows down the release of new developments. The need to deliver new releases faster/regularly paved the way for this Continuous Delivery and the testing model. That the roadblock defeats the purpose of taking this approach.

How to enable Continuous Testing?

The primary role of the tester is to give quality software at the end. So, to achieve this goal, try to adopt the different approach. The manual method is very time to consume, not reliable. Our goal is to try different types of testing, Manual and Automation -continually throughout the delivery process. We create a deployment pipeline when we have CI and test automation in place. After every code change, Means run a builds that a) creates packages that can deploy to any environment b) runs unit tests. Packages /modules that are pass will go for automation. The tester then writes automation test scripts for the code and gets the status either pass or fail. The code is passed forward for self-service deployment to other environments for exploratory testing, usability testing, and ultimately release. The fail case moves back to the developer for changes. If testers cannot detect any defects, they should release any module that has gone through it. If testers find defects laters, they have to improve the pipeline by adding/updating some tests. So the primary goal of the tester is to find the bugs/issues as soon as possible. Thus tester wants to parallelize the activities.
CI/CD is a set of operating principles, and a practices that enable application development teams to deliver changes reliably. Source: Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery

Misconceptions About Automation Testing

Automation is a replacement of testers.

Nowadays, most companies are moving towards Automation Testing in which testers can write the scripts and testing the software. Scripts cannot write automatically by automation; the testers behind them investigate the complete criteria and think according to it to write the scripts, so a tester's perspective will always be valuable.

Automation will provide you more free time.

The misconception that automated testing is giving you more free time which is true as well as false. In manual testing, most of the time used for exploratory and functional testing where testers would manually search for errors. Once that process will complete, the manual tester will repeatedly go through the same steps again, like Regression Testing. In Automation testing, testers will spend most of the time writing the scripts and making improvements to these tests repeatedly as adjustments are needed. Once the analysis is complete, automated testing allows for the recycled use of tests so that they should not go through this whole process again.

The Cost of Automated Testing is Too High

It is the big misconception. Nowadays, we have the number of options for automation like Katalon Studio, Selenium, Robot Framework, etc., which are entirely free tools. If we go for the paid tool, that will also be beneficial because, at first, the investment in automated testing might seem cost-prohibitive, especially if you are in a smaller company. But after analysis, over time, automated testing pays for itself. Automated testing reduces the cost and needs for multiple code revisions, so the investment pays out with time. Repeating these tests with manual testing is costly and time-consuming, but automation can be run again and again at no additional cost.

Automated Testing is Better Than Manual Testing

The reality is that there is no "better" or "worse" between manual and automated testing. There's just "different." Both have their advantages and disadvantages. Perform manual testing first before automation. For every new build, firstly, we have to do manual testing on it. Automated testing is mostly using after the build has developed. Lengthy tests that are avoided during manual testing can be run unattended. In the end, both have their perspectives, especially if the application you're developing is too complicated to rely on the manual approach.

Automated Testing Inhibits Human Interaction

Another common misconception about automated testing is that it inhibits human interaction. Automated testing is clear and faster than testers could do without suffering human errors, so this misconception is understandable. That said, products are designed to facilitate a collaborative approach by including features. It allows co-workers to go through a piece of test coding and then comment on the test script. Automation testing doesn't replace face-to-face communication that's a necessary part of software development. It enhances that aspect by providing another channel through which to communicate.
Read more about   Quick Guide to Regression Testing Tools and Techniques

When and How to Automate Testing?

Test automation is utilizing software, and that might be a script, macro, or third-party solutions. Such quick test professionals handle the execution of test cases and compare actual outcomes to expected results. The setting of test preconditions or test automation for other test control and reporting functions might be used. Still, again, test automation uses a program, a macro, or a third-party solution to perform specific testing functions, even if it's for test preparation.

What are the Benefits of Automation Testing?

Speed of execution

So automated a test should significantly decrease the execution time. You can also lower the execution time by distributing automated tests running them on multiple machines so with the speed of execution. Lets you have a manual process, and it takes you about an hour to perform that manual test. If you do an excellent job in automating the process, it should execute in two to ten minutes of the most.

Reliability, Repeatability, and Re-usability (3R's)

With the manual process lets, you have got john tester executing a test, and he performs that test. He implements the actions, the navigations, and checks for particular results, but he has not standardized the manual test. He goes off on vacation, and mary, the tester, takes over. She may end up performing that test in the entirely different way by automating that testing process. You can standardize it if you will and then thus introducing the 3R's.

Coverage

It means coverage of requirements, so since you are decreasing the execution time, you can validate a significantly higher number of conditions and scenarios, thus improving your testing process.

Execute Remotely

The other benefit is you can execute the automated test remotely and unattended, so you can schedule a series of automated tests to kick off at 9 p.m. and then actually come in the next day and perform your analysis. Now before you automation, there are no. Of questions to ask yourself. Look at your test case, your test plans and ask yourself if our environment and application supported by the automation solutions are using dot net or java, etc., also as yourself is the application interfaces somewhat stable if there have minor changes, then automated process handle those kinds of changes but if its going to be significant change such as navigation or the removal/ addition of certain objects which are necessary for the testing process now might not be the right time to automate. Another important question before you start the automation do you know the application, do you know the expected results, do you know how to navigate while you are automating the test? That is not the right time to be experimenting with the application. Some good candidates for automation:
  • Tests run for every build of an application
  • Tests using multiple sets of data
  • Tedious and prone to human errors
Good candidates for the manual:
  • One time testing
  • Ad-hoc testing
  • Emergency testing
  • Usability testing
  • Tests without predictable results
Java vs Kotlin
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What are the Metrics for Automation Testing?

Annual Savings & Time and Money

QA matters in terms of bringing a real competitive advantage to your business. It is not just making sure that things work that's a huge part of it, but if we make sure that things work as their designed day in day out, then you can have a competitive advantage. We convert a lot of people from either old-style scripted test/ from complete manual testing. So one of the testing we look at is what type of hours and annual savings we can get from moving from a manual or scripted test to a work soft automated test. It usually turns out that those numbers are quite high beyond that. We started looking at things that we can do, for example, in terms of sap impact analysis and be saving people time to determine if they have gaps in their test library.

Defect Reduction

We also look at defect reduction as it turns out defect reduction is one of the most significant metrics that we impact on an annual basis. Because by using work softly, you are just going to catch more things earlier in the development or the rollout process, so you will save a lot of money. Every year concerning reworking those defects because we just don't let it get into production.

Improve productivity with automation

You can replace a lot of human labor with digital labor through work soft. By doing that, we have free people to pursue other things within their companies. Other projects need to do additional modules that need to be rolled out more quickly put all those things together. You get a massive time-to-market advantage because, in addition to reducing the number of hours and money spent on manual or scripted testing, you know an aggregate effect on what we call project compression.

Automated Software Testing: The Glue Between Dev and Ops

There are different stages, we are discussing below:
  1. Developers are writing the code, and after their commit, it goes to version control/SCM. It is the first stage in DevOps. In this stage, you can manage the code written by your developers.
  2. Next phase is Continuous integration. Continuous means rather than waiting for all the developers to commit their code and then build and test it. When any developer commits the code in a continuous integration approach, merge that code into the main branch. Then you can use Jenkins/Git to create and build, and after that, you can test your code in a visualized environment. It saves a lot of time in moving the code from the dev environment to the test environment. We need not wait for all the developers to commit. Even though you do continuous integration, it is of no use if you are not testing continuously
  3. So the next stage is continuous testing. At this stage, you can automate your test by writing any scripts like selenium, katalon studio and then run it through Jenkins/Git in a visualized environment.
  4. If the test fails, then stops here and send back the issues to the developers. If the test passes, we move ahead of the continuous deployment.

In the continuous deployment stage, we have two parts:

  1. Configuration management
  2. Containerization
Consider that five servers are up and running, and they have the same libraries and tools on them. Many of them are from an older background were in the past used to have shell scripts to do this job. If I need to have an exact configuration on 100 servers, using shell scripts will be complicated. So we can need a tool that can automate the job for me. Puppet is the most popular tool for configuration management. The second part of Continuous deployment is containerization. In this stage, as mentioned before, you can create a test environment where you can run your application and tested. It uses for testing purposes; it is giving a visualized environment where I can run my script like selenium scripts to test my application.90% of organizations are using containerization only in the testing stage, only 10% of the organization is using it on production. In 2015 docker 1.9 came, which was stable to run on production as well. For example, if you need to run some applications on prod for the shorter duration, you can quickly create a container on prod and run those applications in that container. When you don't need those applications anymore, you can destroy the container. Now you have deployed your application. You need to monitor it to see the application is performing as desired. The environment is also stable. It is where continuous monitoring comes into the picture. By monitoring the application, you can quickly determine when a service is unavailable and understand the underlying causes, and then you can report back the issues to the developers. Nagios is one of the most popular tools for continuous monitoring.
Explore our blog based on Automated Testing for Microservices

Why Automated Testing is Essential for CI/CD?

Continuous Integration is necessary to keep everyone from working on a team in the sink. It is about having a collaborative event between all the people who are involving build something, keep them in the sink. Why that happens is through automation testing and validation, and feedback. CI is a development practice that required developers to integrate code into a shared repository several times today. The automated build verifies each check-in, and then the feedback team detects problems relate. Practicing CI requires building automated especially on testing itself. As result CI practices, gain more confidence in the code, at least in a development environment. It is essential to know for continuous delivery. Automation is that deploying software is not a simple process of taking a set of files from one place and copying and then moving to another place from one place. Especially for software of large enterprises, there are some files like binary files that need to be deployed; maybe some configuration files need to be moved over, you may have app server need to be restart if configurations are changing, you have to wait for the app server restart. Meanwhile, that's going on. Maybe you can change some changes to the database schema. Then you need to restart the database service. To ensure that all the services are talking to each other, you restart the new binary files and copy them. Maybe you have multiple nodes of your application server. You need to make sure they have the same version of the software and have the same configurations, and all need to be done in a coordinated manner with the right events and steps happening at the right time so that there is some time involved. So delivery automation tools help you do that automation and help codify the time to deploy to any environment. But when you are deploying, you are not deploying just software because you are also deploying the environment. The physical environment may be already provision or the virtual environment or environment in the cloud. But may it is not in the provision. I need to provision it before you can deploy the software, or it is already provided. Maybe you need to do some configuration changes because configuration settings in dev will be very different with the configuration setting in QA, which will be suddenly different from the configuration setting in prod. The actual environment, middleware stack might be the same, but the configuration will be different. So automated deployment is the ability to get software deployed to any particular environment in a given time. Continuous delivery is the capability to deploy the software to any specific environment at any given time. We again include the binaries, including the configuration changes and incorporating changes to the environment.

How to Develop an Automated Testing Strategy?

Continuous testing based on you having a fixed agile process. Excellent communication and collaboration is the definition of DevOps. The second mandatory thing should good for sprint automation. It means you are not continuously playing catch up with automation suites. Strategy means the resources to achieve the desired objective effectively. Test strategy implies the plan of how to test target will meet adequately. You may have test strategy at the organization level, program level, and project level. It is a management policy. At the project level, the test strategy is part of the test plan. Further, depending on the project nature, the test strategy defined at the project level may or may not satisfy the test strategy outline data higher level before.
Setting up an Automated Testing Pipeline makes QA life easier by finding the bugs in the application. Source: Automated Testing Pipeline with GitLab CI

What are the advantages of test strategy?

Mitigates the risk that objective testing

  1. It helps to focus on aspect system under test by using distinct test phases such as unit testing, integration testing, system testing, etc.
  2. Provide clarity on the people, tools, and infrastructures.
  3. If the tester wants to define a robust test strategy for your organization, you should consider the following steps:
  4. Before establishing any test, the strategy tester should research the clients and end-users with individual needs and expectations needed for the applications.

How to test strategies aim is to satisfy just the test objectives?

Illuminate two versions of the test strategy depending on the situation, one for communication to all and add a detail/dealer test strategy for implementation with the key stakeholder.
  • You have the number of options of focusing on different test phases but do not go overboard.
  • Test strategy should be customized according to your situation. What is work for other companies, what is work for your company may not apply to your current position?
  • You should have the required test environment while designing your test strategy. You should have at least one test environment that is the same as a replica of the production environment in which the system is going to work. It is the central part while developing the test strategy.
  • Your test strategy should define the testing tools for testing, defect management system, or automated testing. It is based if you evaluated the test tools yourself. If not, based on your decision on choosing the testing tools, reliable tools, and the popular user reports.
  • It would help determine any defined test processes: suspension criteria, resumption criteria, and exit criteria for the test. The process to execute the test cases and the strategy to reporter a defect etc., to examine their feasibility in your situation. Ideally, the required test processes for you will be reused, modified, or created from scratch.
  • Identify the data that will be recorded, measured, analyzed, and reported to show your testing progress.
  • Challenge all assumptions while you design your test strategy. Provides safeguards if any of the prior assumptions are proved incorrectly.

Importance of Continuous Testing & Automation Testing in Agile

automated testing agile

Early Defects, Less Cost

Test automation for continuous agile delivery helps in the initial authorization & determination of software defects/bugs. As early bugs will fix, it will reduce the cost to the company. A suitable testing process in an initial production stage allows faster recovery in unexpected defects /bugs in the product.

Easy Automation

A Continuous delivery model requires Continuous testing, and this is possible only through test automation. Thus, it helps coordinate Quality Assurance efforts to balance the speed of DevOps, assisting developers in delivering unique software features quicker.

Reduce Testing Efforts

Automation tools are helping to reduce testing efforts. With the focus on continuous development, automation tools will serve the testing team and overall product development.

What are the Challenges for Continuous Testing and Automation Testing?

Increase in Speed and Performance

Automation can accomplish speed and performance easily; While it is enticing to automate every testing mode, manual testing is required in regression & exploratory testing at the UI level.

Gain Efficiency

Building test environments & configuring an automation framework need a lot of expert people & efforts. The most significant work in gaining test automation coverage includes the time and cost associated with setting up a helpful automation framework. Searching for the skilled automation expert is a challenge, and so due to this, many organizations do confront.

Robust Planning & Execution

By automating workflows, companies can reduce cost & time in testing. This planned test management utilizes the power of automation; product owners can determine, track fixes to address critical bugs in their application quickly. Developers can concentrate on bringing new variations to achieve a good user experience.

Understanding Effective Test Coverage

Test coverage lets us assign a score to a collection of test cases and so let's be a little bit more rigorous about it. So, for example, we have just talked about the number of functions out of the total number of positions or exercised by some test. What's right about test coverage is it gives us a score and gives us something objective that helps us figure out how well we're doing. Additionally, when coverage is less than 100 %, that is to say, as in our example, where we had failed to execute all of the functions in the software under test, we know we need to do to get full coverage. We know what the functions are that we need to execute. Now, we need to construct test cases and execute those test functions. So, these are the good things about test coverage.

On the other hand, there some disadvantages.

Because it is a white box metric that derived from the source code for our system is not good at helping us find bugs of omission, that is to say, bugs were merely left out something that we should have implemented. It could be tough to know what a test coverage scoreless 100% means. In safety-critical software development would sometimes be done is requiring 100% test coverage of specific coverage metrics, which removes this problem. It means we don't have to interpret scores of less than 100% because we are not allowed to ship our product until we get 100% test coverage. For larger, more complex software systems where the standards are correct and not as high as they are for safety-critical systems, that's often the case. Still, it's difficult or impossible to achieve 100% test coverage. Leaving us with this problem, we are trying to figure out what that means about the software. Even 100% coverage does not mean that all bugs are found, and you can see that sort of easily by thinking about the example of why we measure our coverage by looking at the number of functions we executed. We executed some parts, which does not mean that we found all the bugs in that function. We may not have executed very much of it or may not have somehow found many new behaviors inside that function.

In which Scenarios Automation Testing is best suitable:

  • Load Testing: Automated testing is suitable for load testing where the tester can change the load frequently to check the point where the application will break.
  • Regression Testing: Here, Automated testing is suitable when the tester wants to do regression testing. Because the number of times code is changing, it can run the regressions in a timely manner.
  • Repeated Execution: Testing, which requires the continuous execution of a task, is better to automate.
  • Performance Testing: Similarly, testing requires the simulation of thousands of concurrent users to automate.
  • GUI Testing: For testing, perform the GUI displays automation testing. There are many tools for recording the user's actions and then replay them any number of times. This helps compare actual and expected results.

Holistic Approach

Devops Automated Testing plays a vital role in executing a holistic approach. Under deeply about devops automated testing, you can also look into the below steps for better understanding.

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