XenonStack Recommends

Serverless

Kotlin vs Java: Which is Better for Android App Development?

Navdeep Singh Gill | 19 April 2023

What is Java and Kotlin?

Java is the native language used by Android, applications that communicate with the operating system and directly use the hardware uses it. This language allows the creation of any program and supports almost all types of machines, and OS X be it Android, Windows, or Linux.  It was developed by Sun Microsystems (now the property of Oracle) and one can use Microservices with it.

Kotlin is the newly created language that is inspired by it, but it is an improved version of it with so many additional features. It is clean, relatively simple, and carries fewer formalities and rules compared to it and other programming languages. In order to use this language to program Android apps, developers still need to understand basic programming concepts and structures.

Kotlin vs Java

Developing Android applications is a great option to drive success to your business but, picking up the best programming language is the real dilemma. For many of us, it is evident that it is the best as it is everywhere and everyone praises it. However, after the arrival of it, this apparent belief in it is somewhat shaken, and programmers start searching for various queries like:
  • For Android?
  • For Android Development?
  • Which is better for Android Development?
  • Which language is best for Android App Development?

And the list goes on. In order to resolve issues and give you a clear vision, we have decided to come up with this write-up. Here we will discuss which is best android Development. So, let’s get started!

Feature Showdown With Syntax

Although it is an officially supported language to write Android Apps, you still may feel that there are not enough reasons to switch. It has been shown to work for all of these, then why should you change? So, here are the reasons why moving to Kotlin is one of the best things you can do.

Parameter Java Kotlin
Compilation Bytecodes Virtual Machine
Null Safety Χ
Lambda Expression Χ
Invariant Array Χ
Non-private Fields Χ
Smart Casts Χ
Static Members Χ
Wildcard Types Χ
Singletons Objects
Remove boilerplate code and make code highly expressive, and intuitive—easy to both write and maintain. Souce: Makes Code Super Expressive

What are the benefits?

Listed below are the benefits of Java
  • It is multiplatform and works on practically any device, server, or operating system
  • Its coding is robust, and it is impossible for it instruction to corrupt memory or compromise data from other applications of OS X
  • It is object-oriented and makes it easy to create modular applications and reuse the parts that contribute to the robustness
  • It is ready to use, and with it, you will get a lot of third-part code ready to use.
  • While comparing their performance, to other languages, it is easy to use, compiling and makes debugging and deploying even simpler
It is an open-source language that ensures safety since many of its libraries are managed by trusted companies like Google, Apache, and others.

Listed below are the benefits:
  1. Kotlin Application Deployment is faster to compile, lightweight, and prevents applications from increasing size. 
  2. Any chunk of code written in it is much smaller compared to it, as it is less verbose and less code means fewer bugs.
  3. It compiles the code to a bytecode which can be executed in the JVM. Thus, all the libraries and frameworks made in it transfer and run in a its project.
  4. It script helps to configure projects in Android Studio for auto-completion aids, and it helps to reduce compile-time error detection.
  5. It is safe against NullPointerException (The Billion Dollar Mistake ). 
  6. It incorporates coroutines, as well as interoperability with Javascript for web development.

What are the challenges?

The below are the challenges of Java

  • The syntax that it uses can be a little complicated or cumbersome while comparing to other languages - like C + or Python.
  • With it is impossible to access certain content that may be incompatible with the device or equipment being used. 
  • It isn't easy to access the new it enhancements in mobile development.
  • There are times when it causes problems with Android API design.
  • Test-Driven Development for it requires writing more code and carries a much higher risk of programming errors and bugs
It is a bit slower with respect to other programming languages and takes a lot of system memory
Below are the challenges of Kotlin
  • It is not so popular, and so the developer community is sparse compared to other well-established languages like it.
  • It matches weak patterns, and initial code readability becomes a bit difficult to read and understand at first.
  • It has a small support community as ts is younger than it. Moreover, it has fewer libraries, blog posts and tutorials.
  • It has a steep learning curve, and switching teams to its because of language's concise syntax can be a real challenge.
  • There are very few its developers available in the market. So, finding an experienced mentor is quite tricky.
Click to explore, Kotlin Application Deployment with Docker and Kubernetes

What are their applications?

The applications of Kotlin are listed below:

  • Spotify
  • Twitter
  • Cash App
  • Signal
  • Amaze File Manager
The applications of java are listed below
  • Pinterest
  • Trello
  • Evernote
  • Twidere for Twitter
  • Shadowsocks

What are the Key Features of Java and Kotlin?Kotlin vs Java Android

Null Safety

NullPointerException or NPE is one of the main drawbacks of it, and the only possible reason for NPE is an explicit call to throw NullPointerException. Some of the data inconsistency related to initialization, or other issues caused by external its code. As already mentioned in the above section that in them, it avoids NullPointerException. Its fails at compile-time whenever a NullPointerException may be thrown.

Data Classes

In it there are Data Classes that lead to the auto-generation of boilerplate like equals, hashCode, toString, getters/setters, and much more. Consider the following example: /* Java Code */
class Book {
private String title;
private Author author;
public String getTitle() {
return title;
 }
public void setTitle(String title) 
{
this.title = title;
}
public Author getAuthor() {
return author;
 }
public void setAuthor(Author author) 
{
this.author = author;
}
}
But in it the same above class can define concisely in one line – /* kotlin Code */
data class Book(var title: String,
var author: Author)

Extension Functions

It allows us to extend the functionality of existing classes without inheriting from them. Means to say that in it provides the ability to develop a class with new functionality without having to inherit from the class. Extension functions do this. To declare an extension function, we need to prefix its name with a receiver type, i.e. the type being extended. The following adds a swap function to MutableList –
fun MutableList < Int > .swap(index1: Int, index2: Int) {
val tmp = this[index1]
this[index1] = this[index2]
this[index2] = tmp
}
The ‘this’ keyword inside the extension function corresponds to the receiver object, passed before the dot. Now we can call such a function on any MutableList –
val abc = mutableListOf(1, 2, 3)
abc.swap(0, 2)

Java Development Solutions for building result-oriented, feature-rich, high-performance, and reliable Java-based applications for Java cloud development.

Smart Casts

When it comes to casts, its compiler is intelligent. In many cases, one does not need to use explicit cast operators in Kotlin, but in its there is “is-checks” for immutable values, and inserts cast automatically when required –
fun demo(x: Any) {
if (x is String) {
print(x.length) // x is automatically cast to string
 }
}

Type Inference

There is a great thing that you don’t have to specify the type of each variable explicitly(in clear and detailed manner). But if you want to define a data type explicitly between Android, you can also do that. Consider the following example – /* not explicitly defined */
fun main(args: Array < String > ) {
 val text = 10
 println(text)
}
/* explicitly defined */
fun main(args: Array < String > ) {
 val text: Int = 10
 println(text)
}

Functional Programming

The main important thing in performance is that it is a functional programming language. Basically, its consists of many useful methods, which include higher-order functions, lambda expressions, operator overloading, lazy evaluation, operator overloading and much more. Functional Programing makes it much handier when it comes to collections–
fun main(args: Array < String > ) {
val numbers = arrayListOf(15, -5, 11, -39)
val nonNegativeNumbers = numbers.filter 
{
  it >= 0
 }
println(nonNegativeNumbers)
}
Output – 15, 11 Higher-Order Functions are those functions that take functions as a parameter and also returns a function. Consider the following code:-
fun alphaNum(func: () -> Unit) {}
In the above code “func” is the name of the parameter and “ ( ) -> Unit ” is the function type. In this case, we are saying that func will be a function that does not receive any parameter and does not return any value also. Lambda expression or an anonymous function is a “function literal”, i.e. a function that is not declared but passed immediately as an expression. An Example of a Lambda Expression –
val sum: (Int, Int) - > Int = {
 x,
 y - > x + y
}
In the above example, we simply declare a variable ‘sum’ that takes two integers and adds them together and returns total as an integer. Then we just use ‘ sum(2,2) ’ in order to call it. Pretty cool huh? Anonymous Function in Android, is a function that allows us to specify the return type and in this, the function name is omitted. Consider the following example:- Either this way –
fun(x: Int, y: Int): Int = x + y
or This Way
fun(x: Int, y: int): Int {
 return a + b
}

Kotlin vs Java | Which is better?

This is so because its interworks with it and provides incremental change of code and superior type system to it and provides the easy Migration path from it with backward compatibility. With features like more declarative, less code, mixed language database its more expressive than it. In it makes it the future language for enterprise applications and Mobile.


Java vs Kotlin
Share your business challenges with us, and we will work with you to deliver outstanding digital products. Contact Software Development Experts

In the following aspects, Kotlin is a better language than it for Android programming:

Build any Type of Application using Kotlin

It compiles to JVM bytecode or JavaScript

Bytecode is the compiled format for it programs also. Bytecode means Programming code that, once assembled, is run through a virtual machine instead of the computer’s processor. By using this approach, source code can be run on any platform once it has been compiled and run through the virtual machine. Once a it program has been converted to bytecode, it can be transferred across a network and executed by JVM.

It can use all existing its Frameworks and Libraries

Yes, its programs can indeed use all existing its frameworks and libraries, even advanced frameworks that rely on annotation processing. The main important thing about this language is that it can easily integrate with Maven, Gradle, and other build systems.

Its earned quickly, and it is approachable

It can be rapidly learned by simply reading the language reference. The syntax is clean and intuitive(easy to use and understand). Between them, its looks a lot like Scala but is more straightforward.

Automatic conversion

JetBrains integrated a new feature into IntelliJ which converts it to Kotlin and saves a considerable amount of time. And it also keeps Summing Things Upus to retype mundane code.

Its null-safety is great

Now get rid of NullPointerExceptions. This type of system helps us to avoid null pointer exceptions. In it the system refuses to compile code that tries to assign or return null. Consider the following example –
val name: String = null // tries to assign null, won’t compile.
fun getName(): String = null // tries to return null, won’t compile.

Code reviews are not a problem

Its primary focus is on readable syntax, so code reSumming Things Upviews are not a problem, they can still be done by those team members who are not familiar with the language.

The Additional Features of Kotlin

Listed below are the features of the Kotlin language:

It Requires Less Code

Any chunk of code written in it is much smaller than that written in Java, as it is less verbose. So, "less code equals less bugs." and less time spent on scheduling and project cost savings.

It’s Secure

It is safe against Null Pointer Exception as all the null situations in the code will be warned at compile time. Users have to explicitly specify to the language that an object can be null, and then check the nullity before using it. It reduces the chances of data loss and bugs.

It’s Easy to Learn

One of the most significant benefits of it is that its developer can understand most of the code without ever having written a line of it.

It’s Fun to Use

Although this is very subjective, it is fun to use while discussing them. On the other hand, it bores users with its limitations and its boilerplate, and users encounter errors frequently due to its design problems.

Smart Casts

When it comes to casts, its compiler is intelligent. In many cases, one does not need to use explicit cast operators in it. Still, in it vs Java Android, it there is “is-checks” for immutable values, and inserts cast automatically when needed.

Type Inference

Its performance, there is an excellent thing with it that you don’t have to specify the type of each variable explicitly(in clear and detailed manner). But if you want to define a data type explicitly, you can also do that. 

Functional Programming

The most important thing is that in them is that it is a functional programming language. It consists of many useful methods, including higher-order functions, lambda expressions, operator overloading, lazy evaluation, operator overloading, and much more.

What are the Business Benefits of Kotlin?

  • Adoption of it is a shallow risk due to its interoperability with it.
  • The code review and learning curve of it are straightforward, and developers can learn it quickly.
  • Between them, it has a strong customer service team with a solid reputation. So, no downtime.
  • It is a combination of functional and procedural programming.
  • Businesses can use it for any development, including server-based, client web, or Android.

Does Kotlin Have a Future?

Well, the answer is Yes. it impact on the IT sector has increased exponentially over the last few years. In fact, some big web portals like Pinterest, Flipboard, or Basecamp are already using it for being supported by the main frameworks. Recent support provided by Google has been the definitive proof that it has a bright future, and the ability to stand up to it.

Conclusion

We know that a clean build is done only one time in our project, and I think Incremental Builds Compilation time is more crucial for us than Clean Build. So in them, Kotlin is almost the same as Java, and yes we can go with it without worrying about Compilation time.