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Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) | A Quick Guide

Navdeep Singh Gill | 29 September 2023

A Guide to Service-Oriented Architecture

What is Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)?

A Service-Oriented Architecture Standardized Service Contract, Loose Coupling, Service Actual is a design model that makes use of shared systems that give services to additional applications over the protocol; this is just a concept and not defined in some programming languages. The primary sources of this are independent of vendors, outcomes, and technologies.

What is a Service?

A service is a clear, independent function that describes a piece of functionality. A service can swap data and knowledge from different services. It is not reliant on the nature of another service. It applies a loosely coupled, message-based information design to interact with applications and additional services.
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What are the key principles of it?

Service-oriented Architecture is as easy as it can be. In SOA, we have nine design principles to remain in memory while generating an SOA service:
  • Standardized Service Contract: Services adhere to a service-description. A service needs to have some information that defines what the service is about.
  • Loose Coupling: Services minimize dependencies on each other. So if the service functionality breaks at several points in time, this should not crush the client application or stop it from running.
  • Service Abstraction: Services wrap the logic they encapsulate from the unknown external world. The service shouldn't show how it performs its functionality.
  • Service Reusability: Logic is divided into services to maximize re-use.
  • Service Autonomy: Services must control the logic they encapsulate.
  • Service Statelessness: Services should stay stateless. This determines that services should not keep data from one state to the other. This would be required to be done from each client application.
  • Service Discoverability: Services can be discovered (usually in a service registry). We have previously viewed this in the theory of the UDDI, which performs a registry which can contain information about the web service.
  • Service Composability: It breaks large problems into tiny problems.
  • Service Interoperability: Services should use standards that provide different supporters to use the service. This is examined so obviously these days that it is frequently dropped as a principle.
Over years of surveys, only 2% to 3% of those trying SOA have decided to give it up Source- Service-Oriented Architecture: Enabler of the Digital World

What are the characteristics?

The Service-Oriented Architecture have the following features:
  • It supports loose coupling everywhere in the project.
  • SOA supports interoperability.
  • It increases the quality of service
  • It supports vendor diversity.
  • It promotes discovery and federation.
  • It is location-transparent
  • It is still maturing and achievable idea

Service-Oriented Architecture Terminology

  • Service Consumer: It finds records in the broker registry using different find services and then binds to the service provider to invoke one of its web services. Which service the service-consumers require, they should take it into the Registry, bind it with several services, and after that work on it. However, they can reach various services if the service gives various services.
  • Service registry: It is a service provider that transfer service offers to one or more further service providers. It is also known as a service broker and also called it a repository.
  • Service provider: It generates a web service and produces the information to the service registry or broker — each provider discusses which service to give more attention: security or easy availability.
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What are the advantages and its disadvantages?

The advantages are listed below:

  • Service Reusability: These applications are built from existing services. Thus, services can be re-used to create many other applications.
  • Platform Independent: The services are platform-independent as people can interact with separate applications over a common language.
  • Easy Maintenance: As services are independent of each other, they can be updated and transformed easily without harming other services.
  • Availability: These facilities are effortlessly available to anyone on demand.
  • Parallel Development: This architecture supports the layer-based design; it gives parallel development.
  • Reliability: These applications are extra secure because it is simple to test short code rather than large codes
  • Scalability: Services can work on various servers within an environment, this improves scalability.

Disadvantages are highlighted below:

  • SOA depends on the implementation of standards. Without standards, communication between applications requires a lot of time and code.
  • It is not for: applications with a high level of data transfer, applications that do not require the implementation of the request/response type, and applications that have a short life span.
  • Increasingly it becomes difficult and expensive to be able to comply with protocols and speak to service.
  • It implies knowing the business processes, classifying them, extracting the functions that are common to them, standardizing them, and forming with them layers of services that will be required by any business process.
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What is the framework of SOA?

Service-Oriented Architecture SOA's framework has five horizontal layers. These are defined below:

  • Consumer Interface Layer: It is a GUI based app for end-users reaching the applications.
  • Business Process Layer: These are business-use cases in words of application.
  • Services Layer: This is a full industry, in-service table.
  • Service Component Layer: These are managed to develop the services.
  • Operational Systems Layer: It holds the data pattern.


To sum up, Service-Oriented Architecture is helping businesses respond more quickly and more efficiently to changing market conditions. An organization can take full overall control and look at problems holistically with the help of it. Likewise, SOA could be regarded as an architectural evolution rather than a revolution. It captures many of the best practices of old software architectures.