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Introduction to Edge AI in Automotive Industry
When we think about Edge AI in the automotive industry, most of us have thought about cars' functionality that can be remotely controlled via smart devices like phones, watches, computers, and tablets. That should have the ability to lock a car remotely, help find parking lots in the rushy area, easily track cars if theft, or receive maintenance reminders on various systems is already seen as a modern-day advancement. Self-driving cars or automated vehicles' main goal is to provide a better user experience and safety rules and regulations. Automatic cars can connect to a smart device and receive information from the world around them.
Autopilot is an advanced driver assistance system that enhances safety and convenience behind the wheel - Tesla
What is the Architecture of Edge AI in Automotive?
At a high-level architecture, automated vehicles have four major components:- Sensors, Perception, Planning, and Control. All the components perform together to grasp the environment around the automobiles, plan destination routes, predict vehicles and pedestrians' behavior, and finally move according to instructions like drive smoothly and safely.
What are the Technologies Involved in Automated Vehicles?
Self-driving cars have a significant amount of technology within them. The hardware in these cars has stayed fairly consistent, but the cars' software is continuously changing and updated. Looking at some of the leading technologies, we have:
- The sensor technology used for self-driving cars is a camera claimed by Elon musk. Images that we received to make it fully comprehend, we need algorithms.
- The camera captures every angle that is required to drive a car.
- It's just like that we are still designing new things for systems to process visual data and translate it into 3D actionable data. We use Teslas (camera), which has eight external-facing cameras to help them understand the world around them.
- One of the primary components for self-driving is a radar that helps detect LiDar, camera, and computer images.
- No doubt radar has the lowest resolution, still can see through adverse weather conditions, unlike LiDar, which is mainly light-based.
- As we know, radar is radio wave-based that can propagate through rain or snow like things.
- As told earlier that LiDar is a light-based sensor, and it is placed on top of self-driving cars spinning around.
- It helps in generating a highly-detailed 3D map of its surrounding as feedback through shooting out the light.
- LiDAR has a very high resolution than RADAR because light-based it has limitations in low-visibility weather.
- Other Sensors
- Sensors like Ultrasonic Sensors, inertial sensors, and GPS 802. IP also used self-driving cars to fully image what is occurring around them and what the car is doing.
- For the implementation of machine learning and self-driving technology more data, we collect more accurate and better solutions.
The perception subsystem mainly contains software components that grab all sensor data and merge them into meaningful, structured information through sensor fusion and understand the Autonomous vehicle's environment.
Perception is broadly divided into parts, i.e., Localization and Detection:-
- Localization: This system gets data from GPS (Global Positioning System) and maps to detect vehicles' precise location. It helps form the basis for other functions that will be used later.
- Detection: This system gets data from other sensors like radar, LiDar, and other sensors to perform different functions like lane detection, traffic light detection and classification, object detection and tracking, free space detection.
Input for the planning subsystem is collected from the perception subsystem and used for long-range planning (e.g., road planning) and short-range planning (such as which turns to take). There are four prominent planning positions in place.
- The car will follow between two points on the map for the path, e.g., the highways and the roads to take, the route designer maps out high-level, rough plans.
- In most vehicles, this is similar to the navigation system. The route planner mainly takes the information from the map and the GPS.
- The forecast aspect forecasts other cars' actions, barriers, pedestrians on the road in the autonomous vehicle's vicinity.
- It uses probabilistic simulations to make informed predictions about their next positions and possible trajectories.
- All this is achieved to navigate the Autonomous vehicle around them safely.
- The prediction aspect involves input from components such as a lane detector, a traffic light and a signal detector/classifier, and an object detector/tracker.
- The behavior planner then uses data from the predictor and the fusion sensor to schedule its behavior, such as staying in the current lane, shifting lanes (right/left), or braking at the traffic light, or accelerating as required.
- The behavior designer incorporates input from components such as a lane tracker, a traffic light and a signal detector/classifier, a free space detector, and a localize.
"Artificial Intelligence (AI) is quickly becoming a new tool in the CEO tool belt to drive revenues and profitability" - McKinsey
- The trajectory planner takes the immediately planned behavior of the behavior planner and generates multiple trajectories while keeping track of user comfort (e.g., smooth acceleration/deceleration), road rules (e.g., speed limits, etc.), vehicle dynamics (e.g., body weight, load, etc.) and determines the exact trajectory to be taken.
- This direction is transferred to the control subsystem to be executed as a series of commands.
- The trajectory planner gathers up information from the lane detector, object detector/tracker, free space detector, action planner, and also feeds information back to the behavior planner.
- Continuing the Waymo case, we see how the Forecast and Preparation components help Waymo address the following two questions: What will happen next? And What Should I Do?
- The control subsystem is the final system that takes instructions from the planner and performs them through acceleration/deceleration (i.e., throttle), accelerating or steering.
- It guarantees that the vehicle follows the trajectory it receives from the planning subsystem.
- The control subsystem usually uses well-known controllers such as PID controllers, Model Predictive controllers, or other controllers.
- The controllers submit information for throttle, acceleration, and steering actuators to move the vehicle.
- This completes the knowledge flow from sensors to actuators, replicated continuously when the car is at the Autonomous vehicle level.
What are the Different Levels level of Autonomous Vehicles?
We've laid them all out below to explain each detail in the more concrete text.
- Level 0: In level 0, a car is completely handled by the drives all the times
- Level 1: In level 1, every vehicle's controls are automated, such as automatic braking and electronic stability control.
- Level 2: In level 2, at least two significant controls are automated, such as steering acceleration and deceleration.
- Level 3: In level 3, around 75% of controls are automated. This car monitors road, surrounding, and acceleration-deceleration of steering.
- Level 4: In this level, the driver almost dependent on the car for all functionalities for security, and the driver does not need to control the vehicle at any time.
- Level 5: In Level 5, We have humans as passengers only, and all functionalities are handled by card only.
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What are the Applications Of Edge AI in Automotive Industry?
There are various Edge AI applications in the Automotive Industry. A few of them are defined below.
The sensor technology used for self-driving cars is a camera, and it captures every angle required to drive a car.
Edge AI in electric vehicles or driverless cars is immediately processed within the same device, and action is performed within milliseconds.
Smart Traffic Management
Like in the real-life scenario, we have traffic lights, especially for four sides roads, which are heavily used most of the time, and vehicles need to wait for some time. This vehicle estimates the intersection with other vehicles and pedestrians and helps from a collision.
Applying Edge AI in automobiles includes a significant amount of technology in them. The hardware like a sensor, camera, radar, lidar, and other sensors inside these cars has stayed fairly consistent. That provides the high level of security to vehicles.
Edge AI continuously monitors various parameters like breaking tire inflating, acceleration, and many more. Analytical models help predict any component's failure and alert the owner.
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What are the Benefits Of Edge AI In Automotive?
Listed below are the benefits of Edge AI in the Automotive Industry.
High Processing Speed
Edge AI helps in offering high-performance computing power to the edge where sensors are located. There is no need to send data on the cloud, which takes a lot of time compared to the edge.
Another benefit of using Edge AI in automobiles is privacy, and we know privacy is a significant concern for every industry. In Edge AI, we do not send data to the cloud to decide. The decision took on an edge itself. So there is no risk for data mishandled.
Reduction in Internet Bandwidth
Edge AI performs data processing locally, and less data is transferred through the internet, so lots of time and money is saved because less bandwidth is required.
As data processing is done locally, it will save a lot of energy because we need not remain connected with the cloud and transfer data between the edge device and the cloud.
AI is one of the technology sector's fundamental engines, with a growing level of importance in all scenarios. Explainable Artificial intelligence in the automotive industry is more than the concept of self-driving cars. It can connect us and keep us safe while driving ourselves. All of this means that there is a lot of money that can be made in many areas. The estimated value of AI in manufacturing and cloud services by 2024 is $ 10 billion.
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