What are Microservices?
The microservices architecture style is an approach for developing small services each running in its process. It enables the continuous delivery/deployment of large, complex applications. It also allows an organization to evolve its technology stack.
Microservices came in a picture for building systems that were too big. The idea behind microservices is that there are some applications which can easily build and maintain when they are broken down into smaller applications which work together. Each component is continuously developed and separately managed, and the application is then merely the sum of its constituent elements. Whereas in traditional "monolithic" application which is all developed all in one piece.
All the services communicate with the api gateway through REST or RPC. These services can be deployed as multiple instances, and the requests can be distributed to these instances.
Separately deployed components
Each component is deployed separately. If one component needs changes, others don't have to deploy again.
Services components communicate with each other via service discovery
Bounded by contexts
It encapsulates the details of a single domain, and define the integration with other domains. It is about implementing a business capability.
Benefits Of Microservice Architecture
- Integration & Disintegration.
- Complected Deployments.
- Evolutionary Architecture.
- Components are deployed.
- Features are released.
- Applications consist of routing.
- Easier to understand the code – It is easy to distinguish one small service and flow of the whole service rather than one big codebase.
- Fast Software delivery – Each service can be developed by different developers and in many different languages.
- Efficient debugging – Don't have to jump through multiple layers of an application and in essence better fault isolation.
- Reusable – Since it is an independent service it can be used in other projects also.
- Horizontal scaling
- Workload partitioning
- Don't have to scale the whole project. Only need to scale up that component which needs to scale up.
- Deployment – Need only to deploy that service which has been changed not the whole project again.
Characteristics of Microservices
- Small in size
- Messaging enabled
- Bounded by contexts
- Autonomously developed
- Independently deployable
- Built and released with automated processes
How Microservices Architecture Works?
Microservices are isolated from each other. Each agile team builds individual components. But how these services work together, To communicate between different microservices, it needs an interprocess communication (IPC) mechanism. Let's understand each component of a microservice architecture.
Different users requests from various devices
Issues security tokens or Authenticate clients and users
Handles requests from various clients
A server delivers the same file to each user. It houses the content of the system
This is used to find the route of the communication between microservices
Content Delivery Network
It is a geographically distributed group of servers. They work together to provide fast delivery of internet content.
It is used to enable the remote access information.
How to Adopt Microservices?
So how to ensure when the organization adopted the microservices architecture or the organization is already adopted it. If a team implemented a service-oriented architecture (SOA), Team already following the modularity and message-based communication. On the other hand, if a team is following the DevOps practices so automated deployments are already there. Moreover, it's building the culture of Microservices Architecture within an organization.
When it comes to business goals, it's not always essential to implement the microservice architecture. The focus should be on unlocking the business values by spending more time on improving the architecture. For most of the time, it means building an application with more resilience and changeability than ever before.
With only the set of patterns, process, or tools the microservices architecture can't be achieved. The team needs to focus on the goal itself –> A system that can make change easier.
The speed and safety are one of the critical aspects where the organization needs to focus on and should find the perfect balance between them at scale.
Microservices Best Practices
Some essential requirements to do best practices to adopt microservices –
- Independents Teams – Create an environment where teams can get more done without having to coordinate with other teams.
- Focus on automation – Automate everything.
- Built for resilience – Ensures failure doesn't impact too much.
- Simplify the maintenance – Have proper guidelines and documentation for each service.
- Provide flexibility – Give teams the freedom to do what's right for their services.
Tools that can be used to Manage Microservices
- API Gateway – Centralize API management, Azure API Management, and Amazon API Gateway can be used as API gateway.
- Cloud Infrastructure or serverless – AWS, Azure, Google Cloud, and OpenStack
- Containers, Clustering, and Infrastructure as Code – Docker, Kubernetes
- Enterprise Service Bus – Red Hat JBoss Fuse, Microsoft BizTalk
- Service Discovery – Etcd, Apache Zookeeper, Consul