How To Deploy PostgreSQL with Docker on Kubernetes
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What is PostgreSQL?
PostgreSQL is a powerful, open source Relational Database Management System. PostgreSQL is not controlled by any organization or any individual. Its source code is available free of charge. It is pronounced as "post-gress-Q-L".
Continuous delivery is a branch of continuous integration. It concentrates on automating the software delivery process so that teams can quickly and confidently deploy their code to production at any point.
PostgreSQL has earned a strong reputation for its reliability, data integrity, and correctness.
- It runs on all major operating systems, including Linux, UNIX (AIX, BSD, HP-UX, SGI IRIX, MacOS, Solaris, Tru64), and Windows.
- It is fully ACID compliant, has full support for foreign keys, joins, views, triggers, and stored procedures (in multiple languages).
- It includes most SQL:2008 data types, including INTEGER, NUMERIC, BOOLEAN, CHAR, VARCHAR, DATE, INTERVAL, and TIMESTAMP.
- It also supports storage of binary large objects, including pictures, sounds, or video.
- It has native programming interfaces for C/C++, Java, .Net, Perl, Python, Ruby, Tcl, ODBC, among others, and exceptional documentation.
Prerequisites for Deploying PostgreSQL on Kubernetes
To follow this guide you need -
Step 1 - Create a PostgreSQL Container Image
Create a file name “Dockerfile” for PostgreSQL. This image contains our custom config dockerfile which will look like -
FROM ubuntu: latest MAINTAINER XenonStack RUN apt - key adv--keyserver hkp: //p80.pool.sks-keyservers.net:80 --recv-keys B97B0AFCAA1A47F044F244A07FCC7D46ACCC4CF8 RUN echo "deb http://apt.postgresql.org/pub/repos/apt/ xenial-pgdg main" > /etc/apt / sources.list.d / pgdg.list RUN apt - get update && apt - get install - y python - software - properties software - properties - common postgresql - 9.6 postgresql - client - 9.6 postgresql - contrib - 9.6 RUN / etc / init.d / postgresql start && \ psql--command "CREATE USER root WITH SUPERUSER PASSWORD 'xenonstack';" && \ createdb - O root xenonstack RUN echo "host all all 0.0.0.0/0 md5" >> /etc/postgresql / 9.6 / main / pg_hba.conf RUN echo "listen_addresses='*'" >> /etc/postgresql / 9.6 / main / postgresql.conf # Expose the PostgreSQL port EXPOSE 5432 # Add VOLUMEs to allow backup of databases VOLUME["/var/lib/postgresql"] # Set the default command to run when starting the container CMD["/usr/lib/postgresql/9.6/bin/postgres", "-D", "/var/lib/postgresql", "-c", "config_file=/etc/postgresql/9.6/main/postgresql.conf"]
This Postgres image has a base image of ubuntu xenial. After that, we create Super User and default databases. Exposing 5432 port will help external system to connect the PostgreSQL server.
Step 2 - Build PostgreSQL Docker Image
$ docker build - t dr.xenonstack.com: 5050 / postgres: v9 .6
Step 3 - Create a Storage Volume (Using GlusterFS)
Using below-mentioned command create a volume in GlusterFS for PostgreSQL and start it. As we don’t want to lose our PostgreSQL Database data just because a Gluster server dies in the cluster, so we put replica 2 or more for higher availability of data.
$ gluster volume create postgres - disk replica 2 transport tcp k8 - master: /mnt/brick 1 / postgres - disk k8 - 1: /mnt/brick 1 / postgres - disk $ gluster volume start postgres - disk $ gluster volume info postgres - disk
Step 4 - Deploy PostgreSQL on Kubernetes
Deploying PostgreSQL on Kubernetes have following prerequisites -
Docker Image: We have created a Docker Image for Postgres in Step 2
Persistent Shared Storage Volume: We have created a Persistent Shared Storage Volume in Step 3
Deployment & Service Files: Next, we will create Deployment & Service Files
Create a file name “deployment.yml” for PostgreSQL. This deployment file will look like -
apiVersion: extensions / v1beta1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: postgres namespace: production spec: replicas: 1 template: metadata: labels: k8s - app: postgres spec: containers: -name: postgres image: dr.xenonstack.com: 5050 / postgres: v9 .6 imagePullPolicy: "IfNotPresent" ports: -containerPort: 5432 env: -name: POSTGRES_USER value: postgres - name: POSTGRES_PASSWORD value: superpostgres - name: PGDATA value: /var/lib / postgresql / data / pgdata volumeMounts: -mountPath: /var/lib / postgresql / data name: postgredb volumes: -name: postgredb glusterfs: endpoints: glusterfs - cluster path: postgres - disk readOnly: false
We need to Define the Environment Variables for PostgreSQL
1. POSTGRES_USER (Super Username for PostgreSQL)
2. POSTGRES_PASSWORD (Super User password for PostgreSQL)
3. PGDATA (Data Directory for PostgreSQL Database)
Now we need to create a file named “service.yml” for PostgreSQL. This deployment file will look like -
apiVersion: v1 kind: Service metadata: labels: k8s - app: postgres name: postgres namespace: production spec: type: NodePort ports: -port: 5432 selector: k8s - app: postgres
Now let's deploy PostgreSQL using following commands:
$ kubectl create - f deployment.yml $ kubectl create - f service.yml
Now you have successfully Deployed PostgreSQL on Kubernetes
PostgreSQL is a powerful, open source object-relational database system. PostgreSQL on kubernetes helped to utilize resources even much better than virtual machines and also provide isolation from other apps which are deployed on the same machine.
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